NSF Data Management Plan
Proposals submitted to NSF must include a supplementary document of no more than two pages labeled “Data Management Plan” (DMP). This supplementary document should describe how the proposal will conform to NSF policy on the dissemination and sharing of research results. Proposals that do not include a DMP cannot be submitted. See also the NSF’s FAQ on Data Management and Sharing.
Institute for Education Sciences
The Institute for Education Sciences requires grantees to submit a data sharing plan with their grant application. For the purposes of the IES policy, final research data are "the recorded factual material commonly accepted in the scientific community as necessary to document and support research findings".
Institute of Museum and Library Services
The Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) has added a new data management plan section (Part III) to their Specifications for Projects that Develop Digital Products document. From the introduction to Part III: "IMLS encourages sharing of research data. The purpose of this section is to help IMLS understand a grant applicant's research practices and plans for management of data that would be generated through a proposed research grant. If the proposed activities will generate datasets with the potential for future re-use or repurposing, answer the following questions."
National Endowment for the Humanities
NEH Digital Humanities Implementation Grants: The DHIG program requires that every applicant include both a sustainability plan and a data management plan. The NEH has aligned their data management requirements with those of the National Science Foundation to enable researchers to take advantage of data management resources that their institutions may have already developed for applying to the NSF.
National Institutes of Health
NIH Data Sharing Policy: Scientific research depends on the free flow of information and ideas. To ensure that future research can build on previous efforts and discoveries, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has developed a data sharing policy for applicants seeking NIH funding of $500,000 or more in direct costs in any one year.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is requiring grantees to "share data produced under NOAA grants and cooperative agreements in a timely fashion, except where limited by law, regulation, policy or security requirements. Grantees must address this requirement formally by preparing a Data Sharing Plan as part of their grant project narrative."
U.S. Department of Energy -- Office of Science
Beginning in October 2014 the U.S. Department of Energy -- Office of Science requires the inclusion of a data management plan for all funded research.